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European Credit Transfer System

What are ECTS Credits?

ECTS credits are a numerical measure of the workload completed. One credit normally corresponds to between 25 to 30 hours of work, and 60 credits represent the workload of an academic year of study. Normally 30 credits represent a semester and 20 credits a term.

The ECTS Grading Scale

Grading scales vary according to host countries and institutions, accounting for the difficulty and complexity of the equivalence process. The ECTS grading system as was therefore developed to provide a universally-applicable and transferable grade that would solve the problems caused by having such diverse and complex national grading systems throughout Europe. It is often used alongside the existing national grading system.

Firstly, this grading system divides students into two categories: “pass” and “fail”; then, those obtaining passing grades are divided into 5 subgroups and an ECTS grade is allocated to each subgroup.

ECTS Grade%
successful students
A10Excellent: outstanding performance with only minor errors.
B25Very Good: above average standard but with some errors.
W30Good: generally sound work with a number of notable errors.
D25Satisfactory: fair but with significant shortcomings.
AND10Sufficient: performance meets the minimum criteria.
FFail: some more work required before credit can be awarded.

How are ECTS credits transferred among higher education institutions?

Home and host institutions have to prepare and exchange transcripts of records for each student participating in ECTS.

The ECTS credit system provides transparency through the following means:

  • ECTS credits, which are a numerical value allocated to course units in order to describe the student workload required to complete them;
  • The transcript of records, in which the students' learning achievements are fully displayed, so as to be understood and easily transferable from one institution to another;
  • The learning agreement, which covers the program of study to be taken by the student, as well as the ECTS credits to be awarded in case of satisfactory completion. This involves the commitment of both home and host institutions, as well as of the student;
  • The information package, which supplies written information to students and staff of institutions, departments/faculties, the organization and structure of studies and course units;

Full academic recognition is a fundamental condition for student mobility in the framework of the Erasmus programme. The study period abroad replaces the equivalent period of study undertaken at the home university (including examinations or other forms of assessment), within the framework of the study program agreed between partner institutions.

Grading System

In the national grading system, the results are represented on a scale from 0 to 20, and the minimum mark required for approval is 10.

16-17Good with distinction
18-19Very good with distinction
20Very good with distinction and honors